Category Archives: Correspondences

The Runes of Odin and their Uses

Runes (Proto-Norse: ᚱᚢᚾᛟ (runo), Old Norse: rún) are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialized purposes thereafter. The Scandinavian variants are also known as futhark or fuþark (derived from their first six letters of the alphabet: F, U, Þ, A, R, and K); the Anglo-Saxon variant is futhorc or fuþorc (due to sound changes undergone in Old English by the names of those six letters).

Legend has it that Odin, hung from the world tree for nine days in order to gain the wisdom of the Runes, and he lost an eye in the process. Odin’s sacrifice and the knowledge of the runes was passed down in the poem Hávamál:

“I know that I hung on a windy tree
nine long nights,
wounded with a spear, dedicated to Odin,
myself to myself,
on that tree of which no man knows
from where its roots run.”

No bread did they give me nor a drink from a horn,
downwards I peered;
I took up the runes, screaming I took them,
then I fell back from there

The original poem is much longer, and has been interpreted and edited by several people. Here is a selection if you wish to purchase a copy:

It is a relatively easy process to make a set of Runes for oneself, simply by scoring small lumps of roughly oval clay or some other crafting material and then painting them to suit.

You can also use crystals , glass or metal and paint the runes on to them, however if possible try and etch the symbols in first with either an special acid or vinegar depending on the medium you are working with.

To learn more about the meaning of the individual runes, select from the list below:

Metals and their uses

Like crystals, metals have vibrations, energies and other properties that can be useful in ritual workings. In this section we have provided information on the most common metals – those used in alchemy and spellcraft for centuries, in the hope that it will assist you in finding the right balance and the most effective energy patterns for your own rites.

Gold is heavy – almost twice as heavy as lead. With a hardness of less than 3, it is quite soft. Since it can be hammered into thin sheets or drawn out into thin wires, gold is sought after for a wide range of applications, including jewelry and electronics. “Gold leaf” is gold that has been beaten into a sheet less than one tenth of a millimeter thick. The latin name for gold is Aurum, which is why the symbol for gold is Au.

"Gold-crystals" by Alchemist-hp (talk) - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 de via Commons -
“Gold-crystals” by Alchemist-hp (talk) – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 de via Commons

The process of turning Lead into Gold is the aspiration of the alchemist. It is seen by some as a physical transformation, and by others as a spiritual metaphor for cleansing and purifying the soul.
Gold adds energy to a ritual. It aids in developing courage, confidence and will power. It promotes wisdom, and attracts wealth and success.

Mercury (Quicksilver)
Mercury is the only common metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures. Mercury rarely occurs free in nature and is mostly found in Cinnabar ore in Spain and Italy. A heavy, silvery-white liquid metal, Mercury (or Quicksilver as it is sometimes called) is a rather poor conductor of heat. It alloys easily with many metals, such as gold, silver, and tin. These alloys are called amalgams.

"Pouring liquid mercury bionerd" by Own work - Own work. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Commons.
Pouring liquid mercury bionerd” by Own work – Own work. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Commons.

Its ease in amalgamating with gold is made use of in the recovery of gold from its ores. The symbol for Mercury is Hg, which comes from Mercury’s Latin name Hydrargyrum, which in turn comes from the Greek word “hydrargyros” (“hydor” for water and “argyros” for silver). Mercury can therefore be seen as an agent of change, and a catalyst. Sometimes associated with luck, it was used in older time as a scrying mirror and for protective charms. Note! Do not use – Mercury is poisonous by touch, ingestion or aspiration.

The word copper comes from the Latin word “cuprum”, which means “ore of Cyprus”. Copper is the only naturally occurring metal other than gold that has a distinct color. Copper’s color is a slightly reflective brown red. As it oxidizes, Copper turns to a Teal Green which is (why the Statue of Liberty is green). Also like gold, copper is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity.

"NatCopper" by Native_Copper_Macro_Digon3.jpg: “Jonathan Zander (Digon3)"derivative work: Materialscientist (talk) - Native_Copper_Macro_Digon3.jpg. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons.
NatCopper” by Native_Copper_Macro_Digon3.jpg: “Jonathan Zander (Digon3)”derivative work: Materialscientist (talk) – Native_Copper_Macro_Digon3.jpg. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons.

Copper is a very versatile and useful metal, and Its earliest known use dates back to 4000 BC where it was used in ornaments and vessels. Today it is used for wiring and industrial applications but it remains highly popular for ornamental use. The seventies saw a resurgence of its use for medicinal purposes, including treatment for arthritis, headaches and motion sickness. In addition, Copper can be used to attract love, bring luck, to draw prosperity. It’s electro-magnetic properties make it useful aligning auric energies, and adds power to spells.

Silver’s latin name is Argentum (hence the Ag abbreviation). Silver is an extremely useful metal and is used in decoration, industry and photography. It is the believed to be the best conductor of electricity and heat. Because of its value and durability, it has for a long time been used to make coins and bullion. It’s sensitivity to light has lead to its use in photography.

"Silver crystal" by Alchemist-hp (talk) ( - Own work (additional processed by Waugsberg). Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons.
Silver crystal” by Alchemist-hp (talk) ( – Own work (additional processed by Waugsberg). Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons.

Like Copper, silver has a very ancient history and has been found in sites dating back to nearly 3000 BC. Silver is used today in dentistry and surgical implants. Silver is believed to act as a conductor for spiritual energy, and as a conduit to channel energy from stones and minerals into the body. This is why gemstones are usually hung on silver necklaces. Silver is also used in healing to correct chemical and hormonal imbalances, and to improve the transmission of nerve impulses, all of which can affect one’s mental state. It is also associated with improving communications, reducing conflicts, increasing popularity, and cleansing/balancing emotions.
The symbol for Iron (Fe) comes from it’s latin name ferrum. This hard, abundant metal has been used for thousands of years for making weapons and tools. It can be combined with Carbon to make steel, the key resource of the industrial revolution. It is essential to the human body which uses it to make hemoglobin, yet too much of it is poisonous. The core of the planet Earth is solid Iron.

"Iron electrolytic and 1cm3 cube" by Alchemist-hp (talk) ( - Own work. Licensed under FAL via Commons -
“Iron electrolytic and 1cm3 cube” by Alchemist-hp (talk) ( – Own work. Licensed under FAL via Commons –

Like Steel, Iron is highly magnetic, and so it has become extensively used in navigation, electricity production, the entertainment industry (video and cassette tapes) and computing. Iron is a very good grounding metal, as it stops the flow of psychic and emotional energy. It is used defensively as a protection from negative energy in all forms, and also represents physical strength.
The symbol for Tin (Sn) comes from the latin name Stannum. It is found in a variety of locations and has been used at least since about 3500 BC in Western Iran. Primarily today tin comes from Malaysia, Boliva, Indonesia, Zaire, Thailand, and Nigeria. Since tin is expensive and not very strong, it is primarily used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion –

"Sn-Alpha-Beta" by Alchemist-hp (talk) ( - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 de via Commons.
Sn-Alpha-Beta” by Alchemist-hp (talk) ( – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 de via Commons.

Tin plate over steel is used to make cans for food. Tin is non-toxic and easily mixes with the majority of other metals, it is this quality together with the low melting point which makes it an essential ingredient of most solders. Tin encourages Inspiration and creativity. It promotes enthusiasm, tolerance and trust. Assist in healing in the central nervous system, respiratory tract and liver function. Tin can also be used to assist in cleansing areas of the body that have become infected or diseased. Some believe it is another “luck metal” and can bring prosperity.
The Latin name for this cheap, relatively abundant metal is plumbum, and gives rise to the symbol Pb. Lead is a bluish-white lustrous metal. It is a poor conductor of electricity, and quite heavy. Lead is unique amongst common metals, in that it has little mechanical strength, virtually no elasticity and is extremely soft. It is an easy metal to work, but cannot support any weight, so its structural uses are limited. It is also highly toxic, which is why it is being phased out of gasoline.

"Lead electrolytic and 1cm3 cube" by Alchemist-hp (talk) ( - Own work. Licensed under FAL via Commons.
Lead electrolytic and 1cm3 cube” by Alchemist-hp (talk) ( – Own work. Licensed under FAL via Commons.

It has been used by humanity for a long time, because it is very resistant to corrosion. Lead pipes from the baths the days of the Roman Empire are still in service. Alchemically speaking, Lead is the basest of metals, and represents the impurity of man that must be stripped from the soul if one is to progress and ascend. Lead is used for Protection, both physically (from radiation) and spiritually (from negative energies).

Remember that some metals, particularly lead and mercury, can be toxic when handled, and certainly when digested in large enough quantities. Always take appropriate precautions when incorporating these metals into your rituals!

The Seven Archetypes of the Gods

At some point on your exploration of Pagan and Wiccan traditions, you are sure to come across the Seven Archetypes, or Seven Great Powers. Three of these are commonly referred to as Maiden, Mother, Crone – the triple aspects of the Goddess. In addition to being aspects of the Goddess, they also represent the life of a woman, from her impassioned youth to her wise old age.

The Maiden

This aspect represents the youth, vitality, innocence and passion of young womanhood. Unfettered by the caution that comes with age, the Maiden is eternally hopeful and charged with a desire to do great things, and to change the world for the better.

The Mother

The Mother represents the nurturing nature of motherhood. It is fertility. Knowledge and experience combine to bring youthful passions under control, and to encourage more planning and forethought in one’s actions.

The Crone

Freed from the drive to reproduce or to change the world, The Crone represents wisdom, completion, rebirth and the occult. The Crone can look back on her life and see her deeds. She can watch her children and grandchildren become their own people and see that without her they would not have existed. In this realization she understands that she has indeed accomplished great things, even if they were not the works her passionate youth had anticipated.

Everyone completes these periods of life at different times, based on their environment and personal attitude, but as a rule of thumb you can use thirty-year segments and not be too wide of the mark.

The Male also traverses these three ages, however his aspects are often ignored in the more Goddess-centric traditions. Those that do incorporate the male aspects refer to them in differing terms. You may see the Male described as Hero, Lover, King or Son, Father, Sage or some other variation. Whatever they are called however, they do represent the three stages of man:

The Hero

Full of the impetuosity and arrogance of youth, this one seeks to strike out upon their path and nothing will stand in their way. They are unstoppable. Life will open up before them and bow down in their wake. They are the soldiers of destiny that will hold the previous generations accountable for their misdeeds.

The Father

With middle age come responsibility and with responsibility comes duty. Now the man understands many things the youth did not. He still desires to change it for the better, but will work from his own house, his own family – making things better for the ones he loves and cares for.

The Sage

The wisdom and understanding that is garnered from a lifetime of experience helps him understand that things always change. Sometimes for the better, sometimes for the worse. Life is a cycle, and what he has changed for the better will remain but a short while. Likewise the mistakes he has made will be swallowed up by the past. The youthful exuberance which may frustrate the father, encourages the Sage, for in seeing this arrogance and passion in the young, he knows that the wheel continues to turn as it should. Life, death and renewal.

The final aspect is referred to either as the Source, or the Sorcerer, the Mage or the Godhead. It is neither male nor female, but is also both. It is only after physical death that we can completely connect with this aspect.

In each of the major pantheons, you will find these archetypes represented in some way. Use the Deity reference tool here to help you: Gods & Goddesses

It is important to bear in mind, when using these correspondences, that the deities themselves may have specific colors, planets, days or elements that they are associated with in addition to those listed above. You can however use these in conjunction with or instead of their specific correspondences if you are unable to locate them.

Gods & Goddesses

Choosing the right deity or deities can make or break a ritual. Many people choose to work more than one – typically a god and goddess, to help balance the energies and increase the power of their magical workings.

If your ritual does have more than one deity involved, make sure they are complementary and not at odds with one another! Also, be clear about your purpose, pay attention to ritual construction, and make sure the environment is one that would please the deities you choose.

In addition to choosing deities, you should take the time to read these sections also, to ensure your ritual achieves the purpose you intend:

Remember these different aspects of deity represent different strengths within yourself, so be sure you are honest with yourself about the intent of your working.

To select a deity, use the selector below to see which deities hold influence over what areas. Note that the Greek/Roman deities are grouped together as Olympians, since many Roman deities were simply renamed from the Greeks. In addition to pantheon and sphere of influence, you can select by weekday, planet, element, gender and name.


Original meaning: Fate
The rune of destiny. Outcome is unknown.

What will be, will be – you must have faith. Accept responsibility for your actions.

Wyrd is a concept – a blank rune, and its inclusion in the rune set is a contemporary invention.

To learn more about other runes, select from the list below:


Original meaning: Wild Ox
Determination. Strength, virility and Health are well favored. Rapid recovery from illness.

Ur is the power of the extinct wild ox, the aurochs. The aurochs was one of the largest bovines to ever live, often standing 7 feet at the shoulder. As fierce and strong as the American buffalo, its horns spread out form its skull like a Texas longhorn and made it a deadly prey to hunt. Ancient Germans used to hunt the aurochs as a test of manhood in the woods and glades of Northern Europe. The horns were prized as drinking vessels, and the hides and meat provided warmth and food for the children of the tribe.

Ur symbolizes strength, fierceness, and individuality. It is the rune of determination and individuality, the strength needed to accomplish great things. It is the rune of raw physical might or spiritual strenght. It’s traits are valuable to a warrior, but they also have much in common with the outlaw. The word fr,cne used in the “Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem” is related to the Old Icelandic word Freki, the name of one of Woden’s wolves. Wolves in the ancient lore were commonly associated with outlaws in general and seen to have many traits in common. This trait is further borne out by description of the aurochs as a “moor walker” in the “Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem.”

The outlaw in Northern European society held a unique position. Outlaws because they were largely expendable were used to commit deeds that no one else were willing to do. Often the outlaw though feared and hated found themselves in the role of hero.

Many feel Ur represents the cosmic bovine Audhumla and therefore represents the vitality of the life force or m??en. This ties in with the meaning that lies behind the “Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem” verse quite well, although more likely Ur represents the physical aspect of m??en called might.

In divination it usually represents strength will be called for or fierceness and the courage to use these qualities. In magic it can be used to bring about strength and physical health.

To learn more about other runes, select from the list below:


Original meaning: Joy
Joy and luck. Connections with Water. Recent problems are resolved happily.

Wynn is the rune of joy and pleasure. The rune name itself is related to the word winsome. This is the rune of positive thinking; to achieve few sorrows, one must use joy or happiness. In addition, they must have a good stronghold, a fortress of the self to withstand the travails of life. Wynn is the rune of elation, of happiness, of taking pleasure in life. Even with the often rugged and hard life of the ancient Northern Europeans there was room for happiness and joy; the togetherness of the family, the seasonal celebrations throughout the year such as Yule. Wynn is the rune of wishes come true, of dreams fulfilled, of togetherness and love. Wynn governs the harmony of humans, that which allows Mankind to live in peace and happiness.

Wynn also governs self esteem for without good self esteem, one can not truly feel happy. For this, one must have a strong will to survive, to combat sorrow. One who loves one’s self is usually loved by others. In essence, Wynn is the rune of frith or peace, the peace of mind one has when living in a community of caring individuals without the threat of such hardships as poverty, famine, or heartbreak.

In divination, it can mean a period of joy or that happiness will be needed. In magic, it can be used to achieve joy and happiness.

To learn more about other runes, select from the list below:


Original meaning: Fire
Celebration. Love and success are strongly indicated. Great health and recovery from illness. Good things may be about to happen for you.

Cen is the rune of fire. Its Anglo-Saxon name means torch and the rune is therefore linked to all aspects of fire. Fire was seen by the ancient Northern Europeans as having warding and healing qualities. Food was passed over fire to bless it and cattle driven through the smoke of need fire to drive off pests and disease. In Medieval times, European nobles burned candles in their bedrooms at night to keep away evil spirits. Thus Cen is a rune of warding and defense, not to mention one of blessing. It is the opponent of disease and evil. It was also fire that sent such warriors as Beowulf off to the realms of the gods. This was the fire of cremation, which KveldolfR Gundarsson sees as a primary aspect of Cen (Gundarsson, Teutonic Magic, page 61).

It is also the rune of creation, the blacksmith’s fire, and here it hold’s much in common with the rune feoh. As symbolic of the blacksmith’s fire, Cen governs many of the creative energies of the artist and worker. While Os is the rune of divine inspiration, Cen is the raw energy needed to complete a task, the blood, sweat, and tears. Cen is also the rune of passion of flaming desire. And is Cen also controls many of the negative aspects of fire, its destructive qualities.

In divination, Cen can mean a need to be creative, to generate the energy needed to ensure one’s health. It can also indicate passions and desires. In spellwork it can be used as a rune of warding, or to set off creative energies.

To learn more about other runes, select from the list below:


Original Meaning: Wagon
A journey or change is indicated, perhaps spiritual, perhaps physicial. Progress is made. The time is right for trade. Unexpected news coming.

Raed symbolizes a journey, either a physical one or a spiritual one. The ancient Europeans saw the universe not as space but as action, for them where action was not taking place, there was a void where nothing existed. This action or movement is reflected in Rae. This action was also reflected in the metaphysical realm by the movement of the dew dripping down from the World Tree into Wyrd’s Well, only to become dew again. This action was symbolic of the flow of time itself. It is the rune of ordered movement and as such also is the rune of the dance and the rhythm to the dance. It is the rune of time keeping and travel. It is also symbolic of the sun’s course across the sky as well as that of the moon. This being so Raed is tied to the passage of the day, the months, and the seasons.

As can be seen by the “Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem” verse, any journey seems easy to the one not taking it. The ancient Northern Europeans saw action as necessary to the maintenance of the universe, non-action was seen as evil or detrimental. Therefore, it was desirable to take the long hard journey, to be constantly in movement. Yet, anything seems easy to one that does not do it. Raed is related to the other “journey” runes Lagu and Sigel, as well as Eh which also implies movement.

Raed can also represent the hard journey, the difficult road to travel in life. The “Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem” verse could refer to the refusal of the hero to take that journey, a part of Joseph Campbell’s Monomyth. Refusal indicates a loss of what could have been a great reward, while acceptance can mean great benefits will be received after a hard time of travel.

In divination Raed means a journey that should be or has been taken. In magic, it can be used to send one on a journey or to keep ordered movement.

To learn more about other runes, select from the list below: